There are four kinds of ritual magics: cooperative spells, lesser rituals, greater rituals, and grand rituals. Cooperative spells are merely normal spells that are cast cooperatively by two or more casters, and lesser and greater ritual spells are those that require special preparation, but can be cast by a single person (some require multiple casters, however). Grand rituals are far beyond the ability of most casters, as they are legendary spells.

  The following rule applies to all cooperative and ritual spells: There can be no more than three times the spell level or double the lead caster's caster level (whichever is less) in additional casters (that is, anything beyond the minimum required) casting the spell.

Cooperative Casting

Any 1st to 9th level spell that is not designated as a ritual spell can be cast cooperatively. In order to cast a spell thus, there must be at least one additional caster, who must have the spell prepared. Each caster must supply his own focus and/or material components and pay any costs. Cooperatively cast spells have their casting time increased by one increment (1 free action increases to 1 standard action; 1 standard action increases to 1 round, etc.). If the casting time is 1 hour, the time increases by an hour; if it is more than 1 hour but less than 1 day, it increases to 1 day; if 1 day, it increases by a day. Each additional caster increases the spell's caster level by 1; if the spell has a damage cap, the cap is also increased by 5 dice.

  The main disadvantage to casting spells cooperatively is that, since there is no focus to control the magical energy, the casters are more vulnerable. If any caster fails a Concentration check while the spell is being cast, the spell automatically fails and all casters take 1d6 points per spell level of magical backlash damage.

Casting Ritual Spells

Some spells are too intricate for someone to simply toss them off with a moment's thought on the battlefield. These are called ritual spells or ritual magic, and they are designated by the Ritual descriptor. Spells developed as rituals have a longer-than-normal casting time (10 minutes up to 1 day) and are usually divinations or spells that last several hours or days (or are permanent).

Ritual spells have levels, just like normal spells, but they can't be prepared – the required actions, words, and somatic components are generally too complex for someone to memorize. Instead, they are scribed into books or onto scrolls. These are highly valued – rituals require a huge amount of time and effort, not to mention gold, to transcribe, and are thus not very common. A spellcaster can attempt to memorize the words and gestures needed for a lesser ritual, but he must make Spellcraft checks when casting it (see below).

In order to cast a ritual spell, the caster must be in a relatively quiet place; most casters who commonly cast ritual spells have a special room set aside for just this purpose, though some rituals, like hallow, must be cast in a specific location. Concentration is paramount, since the spell takes far longer than normal to cast and any distraction can ruin the casting.

Most ritual spells require only a single caster, but he can have others aiding him in the casting. This is similar to cooperative casting (see above), except that the secondary casters aren't actually casting the spell – they're contributing open, unprepared spell slots to bolster the ritual's power.

Secondary casters must contribute a number of spell levels equal to the ritual's level (0-level spells cannot be used); at least one of them must be half the ritual's level or greater. Each additional caster adds +2 to the Concentration check (if necessary), +1 caster level, and 1 free spell slot that can be used for metamagic – any feat that the main caster knows can be added to the spell, if applicable. While casting, all secondary casters must be within 20 feet of the primary. If one of them is required to make a Concentration check for whatever reason and fails it, the spell itself is not disrupted – it simply loses that caster's energy.

If the ritual requires additional casters, each of them contributes open slots as above, but the focus gains no benefit from their presence. Any additional casters beyond the minimum, however, grant the benefits noted above.

Any costs for the spell (ability burn, for example) are taken on by the primary caster only.

 Because of the highly structured nature of ritual casting, sorcerers cannot participate in rituals. Different types of magic (arcane and divine) cannot be mixed in a ritual, whether or not a given spell can be cast by both classes. The sources of power are sufficiently different that divine and arcane magics cannot be combined except in specific rituals.

  Casting ritual spells is draining on the body; for each full hour the ritual lasts, each participant must make a Fort save (DC 10 + spell level + number of hours) or suffer 1 point of Strength damage. These points cannot be healed by any means but rest, but recover at the rate of 1 point per hour after the spell is completed or the caster drops out (a good night's rest will generally restore all damage). Failing a Fort save does not disrupt concentration. If the ritual lasts more than 1 day, the DC resets at the beginning of each day's spellcasting.

Transcribing a lesser ritual takes 1 hour and 100 gp per spell level; it takes up a number of pages equal to its spell level: 1st-3rd, 3 pages; 4th-6th, 6 pages; 7th-9th, 9 pages. A greater ritual requires 1 hour and 150 gp per spell level, and 4, 8, or 12 pages respectively. A scroll is equivalent to 10 spellbook pages and can have only one ritual of any level on it (a 7th-9th level greater ritual can't be scribed onto a scroll).

Lesser and Greater Rituals

Lesser and greater rituals are very similar – the main difference is that lesser rituals can be cast by a single person, while greater rituals usually require multiple casters. Lesser rituals must be at least 3rd level and usually have a small effect – divinations, scrying, even raising someone from the dead, while greater ones must be at least 6th level and have a larger and/or longer-lasting effect – something that lasts for days at a minimum. Binding, hallow/unhallow, and resurrection are good examples of greater rituals.

As noted above, rituals can't be prepared and are usually cast from a book or scroll. Lesser rituals can be memorized (not prepared, but committed to memory), but the caster must make a Spellcraft check (DC 15 + (2*spell level)) upon completing the casting or make a mistake and lose the spell. If the spell fails for whatever reason (a failed Spellcraft or Concentration check, e.g.), the caster takes 1d6 points of magical backlash damage per spell level as the built-up energy of the ritual grounds itself out through him. There is no save to avoid or mitigate this damage. If there are multiple casters, the damage is divided evenly among them, with the remainder going to the lead caster.

Ritual spells cannot be countered, but they can be dispelled during the casting process - a simple dispel magic will work for lesser rituals, but a greater dispel or disjunction is required for greater rituals. Likewise, after a ritual spell has been cast, only the proper form of dispelling will work on it.

Lesser Rituals

3rd Level

Speak with Dead. Corpse answers one question/two levels.

4th Level

Imbue with Spell Ability. Transfer spells to subject.

Planar Ally, Lesser. Exchange services with an ECL 8 extraplanar creature.

5th Level

AtonementF. Removes burden of misdeeds from subject.

Awaken. Animal or tree gains human intellect.

Commune. Deity answers one yes-or-no question/level.

Commune with Nature. Learn about terrain for 1 mile/level.

Contact Other Plane. Lets the caster ask question of extraplanar entity.

DivinationM. Provides useful advice for specific proposed actions.

Legend LoreMF. Lets the caster learn tales about a person, place, or thing.

Mark of Justice. Designates action that will trigger curse on subject.

Nightmare. Sends vision dealing 1d10 damage, fatigue.

Permanency. Makes certain spells permanent.

Planar Binding, Lesser. Traps extraplanar creature of ECL 9 or less until it performs a task.

Reincarnate. Brings dead subject back to life in a random body.

Secret ChestF. Hides expensive chest on Ethereal Plane; the caster can retrieve it at will.

6th Level

Dimensional Lock. Teleportation and interplanar travel blocked for 1 day/level.

Geas/Quest. As lesser geas, plus it affects any creature.

Guards and Wards. Array of magic effects protect area.

Liveoak. Oak becomes treant guardian.

Raise DeadM. Restores life to subject who died up to 1 day/level ago.

7th Levels

Sequester. Subject is invisible to sight and scrying; renders creature comatose.

VisionM. As legend lore, but quicker and strenuous.

8th Level

Discern Location. Reveals exact location of creature or object.

9th Level

Astral ProjectionM. Projects the caster and companions onto Astral Plane.

Shambler. Summons 1d4+2 shambling mounds to fight for the caster.

SimulacrumM. Creates partially real double of a creature.

Greater Rituals

6th Level

HallowM. Designates location as holy.

UnhallowM. Designates location as unholy.

7th Level

Planar Ally. As lesser planar ally, but up to ECL 14.

8th Level

BindingM. Utilizes an array of techniques to imprison a creature.

ForbiddanceM. Blocks planar travel, damages creatures of different alignment.

Planar Binding. As lesser planar binding, but up to ECL 15.

9th Level

Elemental Swarm. Summons multiple elementals.

ResurrectionM. Restores list to subject who died up to 1 year/level ago.

Trap the SoulMF. Imprisons subject within gem.

Rituals (Word doc)

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