Types And Subtypes

Aberration Type: An aberration has a bizarre anatomy, strange abilities, an alien mindset, or any combination of the three.

Features: An aberration has the following features.

  • d8 Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good Will saves.
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: An aberration possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Low-light vision.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons. If generally humanoid in form, proficient with any two weapon groups (simple weapons only) and any weapons listed in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Aberrations not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Aberrations are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Aberrations eat, sleep, and breathe.

Air Subtype: This subtype usually is used for elementals and outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane Air. Air creatures always have fly speeds and usually have perfect maneuverability.

Animal Type: An animal is a living, nonhuman creature, usually a vertebrate with no magical abilities and no innate capacity for language or culture.

Features: An animal has the following features (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • d8 Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good Fortitude and Reflex saves (certain animals have different good saves).
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: An animal possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Intelligence score of 1 or 2 (no creature with an Intelligence score of 3 or higher can be an animal).
  • Low-light vision.
  • Alignment: Always neutral.
  • Treasure: None.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons only. A noncombative herbivore uses its natural weapons as a secondary attack. Such attacks are made with a –5 penalty on the creature's attack rolls, and the animal receives only 1/2 its Strength modifier as a damage adjustment.
  • Proficient with no armor unless trained for war.
  • Animals eat, sleep, and breathe.

Aquatic Subtype: These creatures always have swim speeds and thus can move in water without making Swim checks. An aquatic creature can breathe underwater. It cannot also breathe air unless it has the amphibious special quality.

Augmented Subtype: A creature receives this subtype whenever something happens to change its original type. Some creatures (those with an inherited template) are born with this subtype; others acquire it when they take on an acquired template. The augmented subtype is always paired with the creature's original type. A creature with the augmented subtype usually has the traits of its current type, but the features of its original type.

Celestial Subtype: Celestials are creatures native to the good-aligned Outer Planes. They possess the following traits unless otherwise noted in their entry.

  • Resistance to cold and electricity 5 + 1/2 HD.
  • +4 racial bonus on saves vs. petrification and poison.
  • Magic Circle Against Evil (Su): A magic circle against evil effect always surrounds a celestial (caster level equals the celestial's Hit Dice). The defensive benefits are not included in the creature's statblock.
  • Telepathy.
  • Tongues (Sp): All celestials can speak with any creature that has a language, as though using a tongues spell (caster level equal to celestial's HD). This ability is always active.

Chaotic Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the chaotic-aligned Outer Planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have chaotic alignments; if their alignments change, however, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a chaotic alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the chaotic subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were chaotic-aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Cold Subtype: A creature with the cold subtype has resistance to cold equal to 5 x HD. It has vulnerability to fire, which means it takes half again as much (+50%) damage as normal from fire, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed, or if the save is a success or failure.

Construct Type: A construct is an animated object or artificially constructed creature.


Features: A construct has the following features.
  • 10-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • No good saving throws.
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, if the construct has an Intelligence score. However, most constructs are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: A construct possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • No Constitution score.
  • Low-light vision.
  • Immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).
  • Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, stunning, disease, death effects, and necromancy effects.
  • Cannot heal damage on their own, but often can be repaired by exposing them to a certain kind of effect (see the creature's description for details) or through the use of the Craft skill. A construct with the fast healing special quality still benefits from that quality.
  • Not subject to nonlethal damage, ability damage, ability drain, fatigue, exhaustion, or energy drain.
  • Lesser resistance to critical hits and sneak attacks; reduce the weapon's crit multiplier by 2 steps (x3 becomes x1, e.g.) and sneak attack damage by 1/3.
  • Immunity to any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects, or is harmless).
  • Immediately destroyed when reduced to 0 hit points or less.
  • Since it was never alive, a construct cannot be raised or resurrected.
  • Because its body is a mass of unliving matter, a construct is hard to destroy. It gains bonus hit points based on size, as shown on the following table.

Size Bonus HP Size Bonus HP
Fine Large 30
Diminutive Huge 40
Tiny Gargantuan 60
Small 10 Colossal 80
Medium 20 Titanic 110
  • Proficient with its natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with any weapon mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with no armor.
  • Constructs do not eat, sleep, or breathe.

Dragon Type: A dragon is a reptilian creature, usually winged, with magical or unusual abilities.

Features: A dragon has the following features.

  • 12-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).
  • Good Fortitude, Reflex, and Will saves.
  • Skill points equal to (6 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: A dragon possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in the description of a particular kind).

  • Darkvision and low-light vision.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons only unless humanoid in form (or capable of assuming humanoid form), in which case proficient with any three weapon groups (simple and martial weapons) and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with no armor.
  • Dragons eat, sleep, and breathe.

Earth Subtype: This subtype usually is used for elementals and outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Earth. Earth creatures usually have burrow speeds, and most earth creatures can burrow through solid rock.

Elemental Type: An elemental is a being composed of one of the four classical elements: air, earth, fire, or water.

Features: An elemental has the following features.

  • 8-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good saves depend on the element: Fortitude (earth, water) or Reflex (air, fire).
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: An elemental possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Darkvision.
  • Immunity to paralysis, poison, sleep effects, and stunning.
  • Resistance to its elemental type equal to 15 + 1/2 Hit Dice (round to the nearest multiple of 5).
  • Greater resistance to critical hits; reduce the weapon's crit multiplier by 3 steps (x4 becomes x1, e.g.).
  • No discernable anatomy: Elementals are immune to sneak attacks.
  • If an elemental has an energy subtype, it has resistance 10 x HD to that energy.
  • Unlike most other living creatures, an elemental does not have a dual nature - its soul and body form one unit. When an elemental is slain, no soul is set loose. Spells that restore souls to their bodies, such as raise dead, reincarnate, and resurrection, don't work on an elemental. It takes a different magical effect, such as wish, miracle, or true resurrection, to restore it to life.
  • Proficient with natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with one weapon group (simple weapons only) and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) that it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Elementals not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Elementals are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Elementals do not eat, sleep, or breathe.

Evil Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the evil-aligned Outer Planes. Evil outsiders are also called fiends. Most creatures that have this subtype also have evil alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has an evil alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the evil subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were evil-aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Extraplanar Subtype: A subtype applied to any creature when it is on a plane other than its native plane. A creature that travels the planes can gain or lose this subtype as it goes from plane to plane. Monster entries assume that encounters with creatures take place on the Material Plane, and every creature whose native plane is not the Material Plane has the extraplanar subtype (but would not have when on its home plane). Every extraplanar creature has a home plane mentioned in its description. Creatures not labeled as extraplanar are natives of the Material Plane, and they gain the extraplanar subtype if they leave the Material Plane. No creature has the extraplanar subtype when it is on a transitive plane, such as the Astral Plane, the Ethereal Plane, or the Plane of Shadow.

Fey Type: A fey is a creature with supernatural abilities and connections to nature or to some other force or place. Fey are usually human-shaped.

Features: A fey has the following features.

  • 6-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 1/2 total Hit Dice (as wizard).
  • Good Reflex and Will saves.
  • Skill points equal to (6 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: A fey possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Darkvision and low-light vision.
  • Proficient with any two weapon groups (simple weapons only) and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) that it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Fey not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Fey are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Fey eat, sleep, and breathe.

Fiend Subtype: Fiends are creatures native to the lower planes. They possess the following traits unless otherwise noted in their entry.

  • Resistance to acid, cold, and fire 5 + 1/2 HD.
  • Summon (Sp): Most fiends can summon others of their type (demons, devils, etc.); the success chance and of fiend summoned are noted in each monster description. Fiends are often reluctant to use this power until in obvious peril or extreme circumstances.
  • Telepathy.
  • Teleport (Su): Fiends can teleport themselves plus 50 pounds of objects only, as the spell greater teleport. Caster level is equal to the fiend's Hit Dice.

Fire Subtype: A creature with the fire subtype has resistance to fire equal to 10 + 1/2 HD (round down to the nearest multiple of 5). It has vulnerability to cold, which means it takes half again as much (+50%) damage as normal from cold, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed, or if the save is a success or failure.

Giant Type: A giant is a humanoid-shaped creature of great strength, usually of at least Large size.

Features: A giant has the following features.

  • 8-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good Fortitude save.
  • Skill points equal to (4 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: A giant possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Low-light vision.
  • Proficient with any three weapon groups (simple and martial weapons), as well as any natural weapons.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Giants not described as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Giants are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Giants eat, sleep, and breathe.

Goblinoid Subtype: Goblinoids are stealthy humanoids who live by hunting and raiding; they all speak Goblin.

Good Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the good-aligned Outer Planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have good alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a good alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the good subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were good-aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Humanoid Type: A humanoid usually has two arms, two legs, and one head, or a humanlike torso, arms, and a head. Humanoids have few or no supernatural or extraordinary abilities, but most can speak and usually have well-developed societies. They usually are Small or Medium. Every humanoid creature also has a subtype.

Humanoids with 1 Hit Die exchange the features of their humanoid Hit Die for the class features of a PC or NPC class. Humanoids of this sort are presented as 1st-level warriors, which means that they have average combat ability and poor saving throws.

Humanoids with more than 1 Hit Die are the only ones who make use of the features of the humanoid type.

Features: A humanoid has the following features (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • 8-sided Hit Dice, or by character class.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good Reflex saves (usually; a humanoid's good save varies).
  • Skill points equal to (4 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, or by character class.

Traits: A humanoid possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Proficient with any three weapon groups (simple and martial weapons), or by character class.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, or by character class. If a humanoid does not have a class and wears armor, it is proficient with that type of armor and all lighter types. Humanoids not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Humanoids are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Humanoids breathe, eat, and sleep.

Incorporeal Subtype: An incorporeal creature has no physical body. It can be harmed only by other incorporeal creatures, magic weapons or creatures that strike as magic weapons, and spells, spell-like abilities, or supernatural abilities. It is immune to all nonmagical attack forms. Even when hit by spells or magic weapons, it takes 50% damage from a corporeal source (except for positive or negative energy, force effects such as magic missile, or attacks made with ghost touch weapons). Although it is not a magical attack, holy water affects incorporeal undead normally. Incorporeal creatures are immune to critical hits and sneak attacks.

An incorporeal creature has no natural armor bonus, but has a deflection bonus equal to its Charisma bonus (always at least +1, even if the creature's Charisma score does not normally provide a bonus).

An incorporeal creature can enter or pass through solid objects, but must remain adjacent to the object's exterior, and so cannot pass entirely through an object whose space is larger than its own. It can sense the presence of creatures or objects within a square adjacent to its current location, but enemies have total concealment (+4 bonus to Armor Class) from an incorporeal creature that is inside an object. In order to see farther from the object it is in and attack normally, it must emerge. An incorporeal creature inside an object has total cover, but when it attacks a creature outside the object it only has 1/2 cover, so a creature outside with a readied action could strike at it as it attacks. An incorporeal creature cannot pass through a force effect.

An incorporeal creature's attacks pass through (ignore) natural armor, armor, and shields, but deflection bonuses and force effects (such as mage armor) work normally against it. Incorporeal creatures pass through and operate in water as easily as they do in air. They cannot fall or take falling damage. They cannot take any physical action that would move or manipulate an opponent or its equipment (grapple, trip, etc.), nor are they subject to such actions. They have no weight and do not set off traps that are triggered by weight.

An incorporeal creature moves silently and cannot be heard with Perception checks if it doesn't wish to be. It has no Strength score, so its Dexterity modifier applies to both its melee attacks and its ranged attacks. Nonvisual senses, such as scent and blindsight, are either ineffective or only partly effective with regard to incorporeal creatures. Incorporeal creatures have an innate sense of direction and can move at full speed even when they cannot see.

Lawful Subtype: A subtype usually applied only to outsiders native to the lawful-aligned Outer Planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have lawful alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a lawful alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the lawful subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields were lawful-aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Magical Beast Type: Magical beasts are similar to animals but can have Intelligence scores higher than 2. Magical beasts usually have supernatural or extraordinary abilities, but sometimes are merely bizarre in appearance or habits.

Features: A magical beast has the following features.

  • 10-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).
  • Good Fortitude and Reflex saves.
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: A magical beast possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Darkvision and low-light vision.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons only.
  • Proficient with no armor.
  • Magical beasts eat, sleep, and breathe.

Monstrous Humanoid Type: Monstrous humanoids are similar to humanoids, but with monstrous or animalistic features. They often have magical abilities as well.

Features: A monstrous humanoid has the following features.

  • 8-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).
  • Good Reflex and Will saves.
  • Skill points equal to (4 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: A monstrous humanoid possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Low-light vision.
  • Proficient with any three weapon groups and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Monstrous humanoids not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. They are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Monstrous humanoids eat, sleep, and breathe.

Native Subtype: A subtype applied only to outsiders. These creatures have mortal ancestors or a strong connection to the Material Plane and can be raised, reincarnated, or resurrected just as other living creatures can be. Creatures with this subtype are native to the Material Plane (hence the subtype's name). Unlike true outsiders, native outsiders need to eat and sleep.

Ooze Type: An ooze is an amorphous or mutable creature, usually mindless.

Features: An ooze has the following features.

  • 10-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • No good saving throws.
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, if the ooze has an Intelligence score. However, most oozes are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: An ooze possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Mindless: No Intelligence score, and immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).
  • Blind (but have the blindsight special quality), with immunity to gaze attacks, visual effects, illusions, and other attack forms that rely on sight.
  • Immunity to paralysis, poison, polymorph, sleep effects, and stunning.
  • Oozes suffer no movement penalty for moving through hazardous terrain.
  • Some oozes have the ability to deal acid damage to objects. In such a case, the amount of damage is equal to 10 + 1/2 ooze's HD + ooze's Con modifier per full round of contact.
  • Greater resistance to critical hits; reduce the weapon's crit multiplier by 3 steps (x4 becomes x1, e.g.).
  • No discernable anatomy - oozes are immune to sneak attacks.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons only.
  • Proficient with no armor.
  • Oozes eat and breathe, but do not sleep.

Outsider Type: An outsider is at least partially composed of the essence (but not necessarily the material) of some plane other than the Material Plane. Some creatures start out as some other type and become outsiders when they attain a higher (or lower) state of spiritual existence.

Features: An outsider has the following features.

  • 8-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (as fighter).
  • Good Fortitude, Reflex, and Will saves.
  • Skill points equal to (6 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die.

Traits: An outsider possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Darkvision and low-light vision.
  • Unlike most other living creatures, an outsider does not have a dual nature - its soul and body form one unit. When an outsider is slain, no soul is set loose. Spells that restore souls to their bodies, such as raise dead, reincarnate, and resurrection, don't work on an outsider. It takes a different magical effect, such as lesser miracle, limited wish, wish, miracle, or true resurrection to restore it to life. An outsider with the native subtype can be raised, reincarnated, or resurrected just as other living creatures can be.
  • Proficient with any three weapon groups (simple and martial weapons) and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Outsiders not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Outsiders are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Outsiders breathe, but do not need to eat or sleep (although they can do so if they wish). Native outsiders breathe, eat, and sleep.

Plant Type: This type comprises vegetable creatures. Note that regular plants, such as one finds growing in gardens and fields, lack Wisdom and Charisma scores (see Nonabilities) and are objects, not creatures, even though they are alive.

Features: A plant creature has the following features.

  • 8-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good Fortitude saves.
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, if the plant creature has an Intelligence score. However, some plant creatures are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: A plant creature possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Low-light vision.
  • Immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).
  • Immunity to paralysis, poison, polymorph, sleep effects, and stunning.
  • Minor resistance to critical hits and sneak attacks: reduce the weapon's crit multiplier by 1 step (x2 becomes x1, e.g.), and sneak attacks deal 1/2 damage.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons only.
  • Proficient with no armor.
  • Plants breathe and eat, but do not sleep.

Reptilian Subtype: These creatures are scaly and usually coldblooded. The reptilian subtype is only used to describe a set of humanoid races, not all animals and monsters that are truly reptiles.

Shapechanger Subtype: A shapechanger has the supernatural ability to assume one or more alternate forms. Many magical effects allow some kind of shape shifting, and not every creature that can change shapes has the shapechanger subtype.

Swarm Subtype: Swarms are dense masses of Fine, Diminutive, or Tiny creatures that would not be particularly dangerous in small groups, but can be terrible foes when gathered in sufficient numbers. For game purposes, a swarm is defined as a single creature with a space of 10 feet - while the swam itself is actually larger, the "core", or thickest part, occupies a 10-foot square, and this the part that deals the most damage and must be "killed" in order to disperse the swarm. A swarm has a single pool of Hit Dice and hit points, a single initiative modifier, a single speed, and a single Armor Class. It makes saving throws as a single creature.

In order to attack, it moves into an opponent's space, which provokes an attack of opportunity. It can occupy the same space as a creature of any size, since it crawls all over its prey. A swarm can move through squares occupied by enemies and vice versa without impediment, although the swarm provokes an attack of opportunity if it does so. A swarm can move through cracks or holes large enough for its component creatures.

Multiple swarms can combine to form a larger mass; in this case, the swarm's size (Tiny, Diminutive, Fine) remains unchanged, but the space it occupies increases to a 15-foot square for 2-4 swarms, or a 20-foot square for 5-8 swarms. Larger swarms of 11-20 (often called hordes or plagues) are extremely rare - a plague of locusts is the best-known variation of this - and occupy spaces up to 50 feet square.

A swarm of Tiny creatures consists of 300 nonflying creatures or 1,000 flying creatures. A swarm of Diminutive creatures consists of 1,500 nonflying creatures or 5,000 flying creatures. A swarm of Fine creatures consists of 10,000 creatures, whether they are flying or not. Swarms of nonflying creatures include many more creatures than could normally fit in a 10-foot square based on their normal space, because creatures in a swarm are packed tightly together and generally crawl over each other and their prey when moving or attacking. Larger swarms are represented by multiples of single swarms. A large swarm is completely shapeable, though it usually remains contiguous. A swarm of any size can squeeze through any space large enough to allow one of its constituent creatures, and suffers no movement penalty or damage from moving through most hazardous terrain (spike stones, for example, would have no effect, but a floor covered in acid would affect crawling creatures).

Traits: A swarm has no clear front or back and no discernable anatomy, so it is not subject to critical hits, sneak attacks, or flanking. A swarm made up of Tiny creatures takes half damage from slashing and piercing weapons. A swarm composed of Fine or Diminutive creatures is immune to all weapon damage. Reducing a swarm to 0 hit points or lower causes it to break up, though damage taken until that point does not degrade its ability to attack or resist attack. Swarms are never staggered or reduced to a dying state by damage. Also, they cannot be tripped, grappled, or bull rushed, and they cannot grapple an opponent.

A swarm is immune to any spell or effect that targets a specific number of creatures (including single-target spells such as disintegrate), with the exception of mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects) if the swarm has an Intelligence score and a hive mind. A swarm takes half again as much damage (+50%) from spells or effects that affect an area, such as splash weapons and many evocation spells.

Swarms made up of Diminutive or Fine creatures are susceptible to high winds such as that created by a gust of wind spell. For purposes of determining the effects of wind on a swarm, treat the swarm as a creature of the same size as its constituent creatures. A swarm rendered unconscious by means of nonlethal damage becomes disorganized and dispersed, and does not reform until its hit points exceed its nonlethal damage.

Swarm Attack: Creatures with the swarm subtype don't make standard melee attacks. Instead, they deal automatic damage to any creature whose space they occupy at the end of their move, with no attack roll needed. Swarm attacks are not subject to a miss chance for concealment or cover. A swarm's statistics block has "swarm" in the Attack and Full Attack entries, with no attack bonus given. The amount of damage a swarm deals is based on its Hit Dice, as shown below.


HD Base Damage
1–5 1d6
6–10 2d6
11–15 3d6
16–20 4d6
21+ 5d6

A swarm's attacks are nonmagical, unless the swarm's description states otherwise. Damage reduction sufficient to reduce a swarm attack's damage to 0, being incorporeal, and other special abilities usually give a creature immunity (or at least resistance) to damage from a swarm. Some swarms also have acid, poison, blood drain, or other special attacks in addition to normal damage.

Swarms do not threaten creatures in their square, and do not make attacks of opportunity with their swarm attack. However, they distract foes whose squares they occupy, as described below.

Distraction (Ex): Any living creature vulnerable to a swarm's damage that begins its turn with a swarm in its square is nauseated for 1 round; a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 swarm's HD + swarm's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in a swarm's description) negates the effect. Spellcasting or concentrating on spells within the area of a swarm requires a Concentration check (DC 20 + spell level). Using skills that involve patience and concentration requires a DC 20 Concentration check.

Undead Type: Undead are once-living creatures animated by spiritual or supernatural forces.

Features: An undead creature has the following features.

  • 12-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 1/2 total Hit Dice (as wizard).
  • Good Will saves.
  • Skill points equal to (4 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, if the undead creature has an Intelligence score. However, some undead are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: An undead creature possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • No Constitution score.
  • Darkvision.
  • Immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).
  • Immunity to death effects, disease, paralysis, poison, sleep effects, and stunning.
  • Not subject to nonlethal damage, ability drain, or energy drain. Immune to damage to its physical ability scores (Strength, Dexterity, and Constitution), and fatigue and exhaustion effects.
  • Lesser resistance to critical hits and sneak attacks; reduce the weapon's crit multiplier by 2 steps (x3 becomes x1, e.g.), and sneak attacks deal 1/2 damage.
  • Cannot heal damage on its own if it has no Intelligence score, although it can be healed. Negative energy (such as an inflict spell) can heal undead creatures. The fast healing special quality works regardless of the creature's Intelligence score.
  • Immunity to any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects or is harmless).
  • Uses its Charisma modifier in place of its Constitution modifier for things like Concentration checks, Fortitude saves, and hit points.
  • Not at risk of death from massive damage, but when reduced to 0 hit points or less, it is immediately destroyed.
  • Not affected by raise dead and reincarnate spells or abilities. Resurrection and true resurrection can affect undead creatures. These spells turn undead creatures back into the living creatures they were before becoming undead.
  • Proficient with its natural weapons, any two weapon groups (simple weapons only), and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armor (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Undead not indicated as wearing armor are not proficient with armor. Undead are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armor.
  • Undead do not breathe, eat, or sleep.

Vermin Type: This type includes insects, arachnids, other arthropods, worms, and similar invertebrates.

Features: Vermin have the following features.

  • 8-sided Hit Dice.
  • Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (as cleric).
  • Good Fortitude save.
  • Skill points equal to (2 + Int modifier, minimum 1) per Hit Die, if the vermin has an Intelligence score. However, most vermin are mindless and gain no skill points or feats.

Traits: Vermin possess the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Mindless: No Intelligence score, immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects).
  • Low-light vision.
  • Proficient with their natural weapons only.
  • Proficient with no armor.
  • Vermin breathe, eat, and sleep.

Water Subtype: This subtype usually is used for elementals and outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Water. Creatures with the water subtype always have swim speeds and can move in water without making Swim checks. A water creature can breathe underwater and usually can breathe air as well.

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